A picture of a Arum Lilies

Arum Lilies

Zantedeschia spp.

Also known as

Calla Lilies, Pig Lily, Calla, Varkoor, Varkblom (Afr.), Arum lily, Richardia, Calla lily

Photo by truecolours (All rights reserved)

Full Sun
Easy care
Moderate watering


USDA zone


Minimum temperature

Expected size








2 years to reach maturity


    • spring
    • summer
    • autumn
    • winter

    This plant has no fragrance

    More images of Arum Lilies

    Zantedeschia (3647511170)
    Arum palaestinum flower
    Zantedeschia cv
    A photo of Arum Lilies

    Arum Lilies Overview

    Zantedeschia is a genus containing around 8 species of herbaceous, perennial flowering plants, native to southern and East Africa. Members of this genus are popular for its striking, upright, spathe around a solitary, finger-like spadix. Flower colour ranges from white, yellow, pink and red. Plants of the genus Zantedeschia are deciduous perennials (may be evergreen) up to 1 m high and survive the dry season through rhizomes or tubers. In most Zantedeschia species, tubers are buried in crevices of rocks. This presumably is an adaptation to keep the tubers and roots cool over the dry season, and in the rainy season, the plants benefit from water channelled into the crevices. Plants in the genus prefer full sun, soil rich in humus, and seasonal watering. Zantedeschia aethiopica grows in both the summer and winter rainfall areas and is evergreen, but will become dormant in dry conditions. All other species (except Zantedeschia odorata ) occur in the summer rainfall region and are dormant in winter. They must, therefore, be kept dry in winter. Zantedeschia odorata, being a winter rainfall plant, is dormant in summer and must be kept dry in the summer months. Indigenous to South Africa, today, numerous Zantedeschia cultivars are available as garden and pot plants and, due to their decorative and long-lasting spathes, they are popular as cut flowers. These cultivars generate high revenue in New Zealand, USA and the Netherlands. A number of hybrids have been developed, that fall in two main groups: Elliottiana hybrids, which usually have dotted leaves and yellow spathes and golden yellow spadices, and Rehmannii hybrids, which have unspotted leaves and white-pink or dark purple spathes, surrounding yellow spadices. Depending on the species, members of this genus can be grown in containers or flower borders/beds in a variety of garden styles, with the species Zantedeschia aethiopica often being cultivated as a marginal aquatic plant. The centre of diversity for the genus is Lydenburg in Mpumalanga where four species occur. Plants of Zantedeschia grow in the grassland, savanna and fynbos biomes, in full sun, less often in partial shade, and they occur in areas with seasonal rainfall. All species occur in the summer rainfall areas, except for Z. odorata at Nieuwoudtville (winter rainfall), and Z. aethiopica which is widespread and commonly found in marshy areas.

    Common problems with Arum Lilies

    How to harvest Arum Lilies

    Generally not harvested, flowers can be cut for floral arrangements as required.

    How to propagate Arum Lilies


    Divide in spring - Check stored tubers and when they begin to show signs of new growth, divide them, making sure each section has a visible bud. Allow the cut areas to dry and callus over for a few days before planting up. In milder areas, lilies can be divided in autumn after the foliage has faded and is easily pulled from the ground. As per stored tubers, ensure each section has at least one growing eye and calluses over before replanting.


    Sow seed in spring, one seed per 8 cm pot and keep at 21 C (70 F). Plants should take two or three years to flower.


    Plant out tubers after the last frost. Space them roughly ten cm deep and 30 cm apart, water the area well.

    Special features of Arum Lilies

    Attractive flowers

    Attracts useful insects

    Beetles are the most likely pollinators of Zantedeschia flowers.

    Other uses of Arum Lilies

    Can be grown as a pot plant indoors or frost-free garden locations. It suits being included in subtropical garden designs.


    The tubers of Zantedeschia aethiopica and Zantedeschia albomaculata are reported to be eaten by some African communities in southern Africa. Eating raw tubers causes irritation of the mouth. In the early days the tubers of Zantedeschia aethiopica were boiled and fed to pigs, hence the vernacular name “pig lily". The leaves of Z. aethiopica are cooked as a pot herb by the African and Indian communities in South Africa.

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