The Ceratina bees are a cosmopolitan group comprising 350 species across the globe. They're characterised by their heavy armour, which is often iridescent blue or green.
Most species are solitary; the females care for broods on their own. In some cases, however, they're known to provision nests with several other females.
Carpenter Bees are named after their lifestyles. These bees will excavate nests in deadwood, stems and piths.
A smaller fraction of species builds tunnels in sandy soil, in which they lay eggs and provision young with nectar and pollen.
Small mining bees are found in an array of habitats, including both disturbed and undisturbed types (grasslands, forests, wetlands, marshlands, open habitats, protected areas, farmlands, rangelands, plantations, abandoned quarries etc.).
They pollinate a large selection of plants; especially those that produce small yellow, white, green, cream and purple flowers.