Codling Moth, Kodlingmot (Afr.)
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Cydia pomonella targets a broad range of commercial crops and fruits, including Apple and Pear. They're present on most continents, but it's proposed they first originated in Europe. The larvae bore into fruits, making it inedible. Their feeding dramatically stunts the overall fruit size. They're considered significant pests in agriculture and can be a nuisance in gardens, too.
Reduce growth of fruits, which eventually rot.
Adults: The adults have four wings and are a dark and light brown colour. The wings have bronze coloured tips that reflect in the sunlight. Larvae: The caterpillars are a pale yellow cream colour with large brown eyes.
Entry holes in fruits. Quicker ripening. Small fruits. Premature fruit fall. Brown or black marks.
Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America, Australia, and the Pacific Islands
You can help to reduce the number of larvae that hatch after winter by scrapping any loose bark away from trees; this will remove any cocoons that are hiding inside. Likewise, clear leaf litter surrounding Pear and Apple to remove any hiding caterpillars. Introduce nematodes to the soil to penetrate the soil and kill off any pest in its early stages. You can buy sticky traps that will attract the adult moths, and they won't be able to get off. Pheremone traps can also be purchased online. Not only can you monitor populations, but the traps specifically attract males. By capturing males, the female moths are less likely to reproduce successfully. Pheremone traps may trap small garden birds, so it's advised to use additional netting around traps to prevent this from happening.
When trying to kill the caterpillars on fruit trees, insecticides will only work if they catch the larvae before entering the fruits.