Everything You Need to Know About Forest Gardening

Published on December 5th 2020
A forest garden with lots of plants

What is a Forest Garden?

I’ve always loved gardens that are productive, beautiful and ecologically sound. Forest gardens follow this ethos, creating self-sustaining, diverse and resilient ecosystems that mimic the structure of natural woodland.
Originating in tropical regions, this method of gardening has become popular in temperate areas over the past few decades, particularly as we face the dual challenges of climate breakdown and massive biodiversity declines.
The majority of plants used for forest gardening are edible while others are grown for medicine, dye and timber, or to provide physical support or nutrients for other plants.
A close up of a flower
Apple blossom is a good choice to base your forest garden around

How to make your own forest garden

Many renowned examples of forest gardens, like Martin Crawford’s demonstration garden on the Dartington Estate in Devon, are extensive in scope. But this doesn’t need to be the case.
At the RHS Hampton Court Flower Show in 2017, Jon Davies and Andreas Christodoulou’s gold-winning garden ‘London Glades’ showed how the same methods can be developed in a small urban plot by combining compact edible and ecologically supportive plants in every layer of the design.
The London glade garden at the Rhs Hampton Court Flower Festival 2017
© RHS Credit: RHS / Sarah Cuttle

Forest garden layers

Like natural woodland, forest gardens are structured in several layers.
Martin Crawford, director of the Agroforestry Research Trust, lists seven layers, beginning with the high canopy, then moving to smaller trees and large shrubs, smaller shrubs, herbaceous perennials, ground cover, climbers and finally crops beneath the ground.
Not only is this system highly productive, but once established it requires relatively little maintenance due to the perennial nature of many of the plants and the self-sustaining nature of the ecosystem.
A forest garden
Credit: Martin Crawford

Trees and shrubs

In a small garden, rather than having three distinct upper layers, the canopy could consist of a single fruit or nut tree (ideal choices include hazel, which can be coppiced, or an apple or plum on a dwarfing rootstock) with the second layer comprising shrubs like shade-tolerant currants, Chilean guava (prefers acid soil and a sheltered position) or a nitrogen-fixing shrub, like sea buckthorn with its vitamin-C rich berries.
A fruit hanging from a branch
Chilean guava
When planning these layers, it is important to ensure there is sufficient room for plants to mature without becoming overcrowded. In smaller gardens, one or two shrubs might fill the space, whereas in a larger plot, more shrubs of differing sizes can be used.

Herbaceous plants

The herbaceous layer can include nectar-rich choices like monarda, echinacea and sedum to provide for pollinating insects, alongside herbal plants such as chamomile and edible plants like perennial kale, rhubarb, oregano and wild strawberries.
For ground cover, plants such as creeping thyme, stonecrop and nitrogen-fixing white clover act as a living mulch, helping to prevent weed problems and reducing water loss.
A close up of a flower garden
Thyme as ground cover

Climbers and roots

Climbers and vines, such as hardy kiwi, nasturtiums, hops and grapes, add to the variety of a forest garden and, beneath the ground, plants with edible roots and tubers like skirret, oca and earth chestnut or nitrogen-fixing plants such as liquorice increase the productivity and resilience of the system.
A close up of hops hanging from a tree in a forest garden
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Free download for your phone or tablet
Download on the App StoreGet it on Google Play

Lots to see

Follow and read AlanGardenMaster’s articles as he develops his new one-acre plot. PimlicoDan shows city gardening in a whole new light, or follow DaisyDays on her adventures in the allotment and as a professional gardener. Just a few of the many personalities you’ll meet in our app. Free download for your phone or tablet.
Download on the App StoreGet it on Google Play


Subscribe for the latest updates from Candide

What is Candide?

Candide has everything for plant lovers – buy plants from independent sellers and book tickets to visit inspiring gardens near you. Identify plants in seconds from a single photo and learn how to care for them with our in-depth guides.


Learn how to care for your plants and share your growing successes on Candide’s free app for your phone or tablet.

Download on the App StoreGet it on Google Play

Germinated in Bristol © 2021 Candide