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Rust fungi are characterised by their orange-brown pustules which are often surrounded by a yellow ring (Depending on particular rust) that appear primarily on the leaves of a plant. They can range in severity from infections that can wipe out a crop to purely aesthetic damage. There are over 4500 different species of rust fungi of which 200 are native to the UK. They attack a very wide range of hosts from food crops to ornamentals.
Rust fungi are characterised by their orange-brown pustules which are often surrounded by a yellow ring (dependent on specific rust) that appear primarily on the leaves of a plant. They can also, however, appear on the stems and other plant organs in severe infections. Pustules on leaves can be on the top or underside of the leaf depending on the species of rust
Overly damp, or dry conditions. Poor air circulation.
Orange-brown pustules on leaves, shoots or fruits. Pustules can be on the top or underside of leaves.
There are no biological treatments for rust fungi
There are some copper fungicides that can be used to treat rust but these are quickly being made illegal and so you will need to check what is available.
The rust fungi produce 4 different types of spores making it one of the most complicated life cycles of fungi. They often alternate between different host plants for different stages of their life cycle producing 1 or 2 types of spore on one species, then the remaining spore types on another species.
General plant hygiene e.g, clearing dead leaves, removing and burning infected material etc. Having good drainage in the soil. Good airflow through and around plants.
Thousands of different host species.