Rose

Rosa spp.

Wild Rose

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The genus Rosa is more commonly known as Rose. A rose is a woody, perennial flowering plant. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. This group of plants can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that often have thorns. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white, yellows, reds, pinks and purples. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 m in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. During the 15th Century, the rose was used as a symbol for the factions fighting to control England. The white rose symbolized York, and the red rose symbolized Lancaster as a result, the conflict became known as the "War of the Roses".
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Planning

Difficulty

Moderate

Flowering time

Spring, Summer, Autumn

Fruiting time

Spring, Summer, Autumn

Harvesting

Roses can be harvested throughout the growing season. It is best to harvest in the early mornings before the heat of the day. Use sharp, clean secateurs and cut the stems at an angle just above an active bud.

Propagation

Division

Some rose species can be lifted in winter and divided, to produce more plants.

Layering

Some species that produce soft, rambling branches can be multiplied by layering.

Cuttings

Take hardwood cuttings from firm young stems with some leaves in Autumn. Make 1-2.5 cm vertical slits through the bark near the base. Place in pots of moist sand or potting soil to root.

Seed

Sow seeds after cold stratification, either in Spring or in Winter to be outside during the cold.

Notes

Most rose cultivars are made by rooting cuttings of the desired cultivar or by grafting or budding the desired cultivar onto a suitable rootstock.

Special features

Attracts bees

Bees pollinate the flowers.

Hedge plant

The rambling rose species make excellent, dense hedges.

Attractive flowers

Roses are mostly grown in garden throughout the world for their attractive flowers.

Pot plant

The smaller rose species can happily be grown in containers. Provide good light and well draining potting mix, feed regularly.

Special features

Origin

Europe, China and the Middle East.

Natural climate

Temperate

Environment

Light

Full Sun

Soil moisture

Moist

Soil type

Loam

Soil PH preference

Acid, Neutral

Frost hardiness

Half-Hardy

Uses

Medicinal

The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine.

Cut flowers

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).

Edible

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine, especially in sweets such as barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, gumdrops, kanafeh, nougat, and Turkish delight. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.

Perfume

Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses.

Personality

Family

Rosaceae

Flower colour

Red, Green, Multicoloured, White, Orange, Pink, Yellow, Cream, Purple

Scent

Strong

Problems

Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these are also shared with other plants, including especially other genera of the Rosaceae. Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.

Companion plants

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Knowledge and advice

Search our ever-growing knowledge base to find plants and information. Find out about pests and diseases you should be keeping an eye out for. Watch How to videos or follow step by step guides for tasks in the garden. Free download for your phone or tablet.,
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