The genus Rosa is more commonly known as Rose. Roses are deciduous or semi-evergreen, perennial flowering plants. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing, with stems that often have thorns. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white, yellow, red, pink to purple. They are often followed by red or purple fruits known as 'hips'. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are grown in gardens for their beauty and are often fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 metres in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this feature has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. Most rose cultivars are made by rooting cuttings or by grafting or budding the desired cultivar onto a suitable rootstock. The rose is the national flower of the USA. During the 15th Century, the rose was used as a symbol for the factions fighting to control England. The white rose symbolized York, and the red rose symbolized Lancaster – as a result, the conflict became known as the "War of the Roses".
Spring, Summer, Autumn
Roses can be harvested throughout the growing season. It is best to harvest in the early mornings before the heat of the day. Use sharp, clean secateurs and cut the stems at an angle just above an active bud.
Some species that produce soft, rambling branches can be multiplied by layering.
Take hardwood cuttings from firm young stems with some leaves in Autumn. Make 1-2.5 cm vertical slits through the bark near the base. Place in pots of moist sand or potting soil to root.
Sow seeds after cold stratification, either in Spring or in Winter to be outside during the cold.
Bees pollinate the flowers.
The rambling rose species make excellent, dense hedges.
The smaller rose species can happily be grown in containers. Provide good light and well draining potting mix, feed regularly.
Roses are mostly grown in gardens throughout the world for their attractive flowers.
Europe, China and the Middle East.
Loam, Chalk, Clay, Sand
Soil PH preference
Acid, Neutral, Alkaline
The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine.
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine, especially in sweets such as barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, gumdrops, kanafeh, nougat, and Turkish delight. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.
Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses.
Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these are also shared with other plants, including especially other genera of the Rosaceae. Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and viral diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.