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Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus


Watermelon is a spreading trailing plant that produces large round to oblong fruits with a mottled or striped green skin. Watermelon flesh can be red, orange, yellow or white depending on the variety. Watermelon is grown in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide for its large edible fruit, which is a special kind of berry with a hard rind and no internal division, botanically called a pepo. The sweet, juicy flesh is usually deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties have been cultivated. Watermelons are tender and need a long warm growing season to produce its fruit. Watermelon fruit is 91% water, contains 6% sugars, and is low in fat. In a 100 gram serving, watermelon fruit supplies 30 calories and low amounts of essential nutrients, only vitamin C is present in appreciable content at 10% of the Daily Value.


Flowering time
Spring, Summer
Fruiting time
Summer, Autumn


Fruits are picked when they are fully ripe. Rolling the melon over and looking at the ground spot where the melon was laying is probably the best method to determine if the melon is ripe. If that portion of the watermelon is a pale yellow color, the melon should be ripe. You can also look at the tendrils (short, curly, stem-like vine) next to the melon. The tendrils are close to the area where a leaf is attached to the main vine. When the first tendril next to the fruit looks dead and dried up, the melon closest to that tendril should be ripe. Watermelons will store longer than other melons and should be refrigerated, especially after cut. Matures in 80-100 days after sowing.


Sow seeds in Spring, 2.5 cm deep, 12-200 cm apart and in rows 2.4 m apart. Keep the soil moist. Germination takes 5-8 days.

Special features

Crop rotation
To reduce insect and disease problems, avoid planting cucumber family crops (melons, squash, pumpkins) in the same spot two years in a row.


Watermelons originate in Southern Africa, possibily Namibia. It spread through Africa and seed was found in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun! Special breeding programs select sweetness, color and size.
Natural climate
Sub-tropical, Tropical, Temperate


Full Sun
Soil moisture
Soil type
Loam, Sand
Soil PH preference
Frost hardiness


The huge fruits are edible and best eaten fresh. A wonderful thirst quencher on a hot summers day or added to salads, deserts and even made into jams. The rind is edible after cooking.


Flower colour
Yellow, Green


Major pests of the watermelon include aphids, fruit flies and root-knot nematodes. In conditions of high humidity, the plants are prone to plant diseases such as powdery mildew and mosaic virus. Some varieties often grown in Japan and other parts of the Far East are susceptible to fusarium wilt. Grafting such varieties onto disease-resistant rootstocks offers protection.

Companion plants

Growing maize between your rows of watermelons will help protect the leaves from wind damage and help keep moisture levels.

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